Planetary nebula

A planetary nebula is a remnant of a star of 1-1.5 solar masses that, after its Red Giant phase, ejected its outer layers and contracted to a hot White Dwarf. The ejected gas-layers are expanding with velocities of 20-40 km/sec. The intense radiation of the white dwarf ionizes the gas which lights up in the characteristic colors of a planetary nebula: 656nm (red) for excited hydrogen and 496/501nm (blue/green) for ionized oxygen. Due to the expansion of the gas envelope, the intensity of a planetary nebula drops ' quickly' and after several 10,000 years it becomes invisible. As a result the number of planetary nebula is limited.

Dumbbell nebula DUMBBELL NEBULA
16 september 2007
25cm Newton f/D=5.7
FTT1010-M CCD
RGB-filterweel
Exp. RGB 12x90sec
FoV: 0.3x0.3 gr
Eskimo nebula 27 feb 2005 ESKIMO NEBULA
27 february 2005
f=4300mm Cassegrain, f/D=16.8
FTT1010-M CCD; MYC-filter wheel
Each color: 17x60sec
H-alpha component: unsharp masked
Image deconvoluted with MEM
NGC6781 NGC6781 IN AQUILA
1 September 2003
FTT1010-M (non-binned)
Prime focus 25cm Newton
MYC-filter wheel
Each color 14x100sec.
Luminance comp.=M+Y+C images.
M57 Ring nebula and IC1296 M57 RING NEBULA and IC1296
23 August 2003
FTT1010-M (non-binned)
Prime focus 25cm Newton
MYC-filter wheel
Each color 18x60s. Unsharp masked
IC1296 with other gray-scale
pasted into image
Luminance comp.=M+Y images.
Owl nebula M97 M97 OWL NEBULA
6 April 2003 (excellent seeing)
FTT1010-M (binned)
Prime focus 25cm Newton
MYC-colour filter wheel
Exp.: Each colour 15x100sec
Unsharp masked;
Luminance=sum MYC exposures.
DUMB-BELL NEBULA (M27)
Date: 23 August 2000
Scope: 25cm Newton at f/D=5.7
CCD: FT1020 colour CCD
Exp.: Sum of 29 images of 120sec
RING NEBULA (M57), October 1999
25cm Newton f/D=5.7
FT800 with colour filter wheel
R 16x1min, G 15x1min, B 17x2min
Unsharp masked with HF-structure of R-image.
Gamma correction 1.5
ESKIMO NEBULA (NGC2392)
15 mar. 1999 (L), 14 mar. 2001 (R)
-Left: FT800, colour wheel, Barlow proj. (f/D=13.4)
-Right: FT1020-C, prime focus 25cm Newton (f/D=5.7)
Exposure:
-FT800: R 21x90s, G 24x90s, B 9x90s
-FT1020: 32x90sec
Unsharp masked. FOV: 3.8' x 6.0'

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